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Metalworking Fluid Maintenance Technical Papers and Documentation

The following is our library of technical papers addressing the maintenance of metalworking fluids. These are publicly available papers, available from the source listed or Zebra directly, both on the web or as hard copies by request. If you know of something that should be here, let us know. We'll track it down for you, and include it in the future.

- Metalworking Fluids Basic Safety Manual An informal advisory manual, to assist employers in providing a safe and healthful workplace for workers exposed to metalworking fluids

MWF Related Books Author (s) Publisher
Lubricants and Lubrication in Metalworking Operations

- Elliot S. Nachtman, Tower Oil & Technology Co., Chicago, Illinois
- Serope Kalpakjian, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois

Marel Dekker, Inc.
New York • Basel

Machinability of engineering materials B. Mills and A.H. Redford Elsevier Science Pub. Co.
Metal Cutting Principles Milton C. Shaw, Professor of Engineering
Arizona State University
Clarendon Press • Oxford
Metalworking Fluids Jerry P. Byers, Cincinnati Milacron
Cincinnati, Ohio
Marcel Dekker, Inc.
New York • Basel • Hong Kong

Minnesota Technical Assistance Program
- Coolant Maintenance for Machining Operations (pdf) Machining coolants are an important component of metalworking operations. Coolants improve machinability, increase productivity and extend tool life by cooling and lubricating the work piece and cutting tool. Developing and implementing a coolant maintenance program can help minimize contamination, prolong coolant life and reduce cost.
- Coolant Maintenance Equipment and Supplies (pdf) Appropriate coolant maintenance programs help keep operations efficient and productive.

- Greenfluids Manual (pdf) Covers areas of improvement in the use of metalworking fluids in the shop with respect to preventing pollution
- Coolant Waste Guide Ways to reduce waste of metalworking fluids in the shop
- Shop Wastewater Reduction Covers many areas where machine shops can reduce waste, process and product

Zebra Skimmers Corp.
- Coolant Maintenance Basics Chemical and biological detail behind the four basic steps to good coolant maintenance
-  How Bacteria Change Gear The greatest challenge we face in keeping your coolant performing at its peak operating characteristics isn't chemical or physical. The challenge is biology - Mother Nature.

Current Research Description
Chen, Schauder, Potier, Van Dorsselaer, Pelczer, Bassler, and Hughson Autoinducers can coordinate gene expression in bacterial colonies, enhancing many collective features including biofilm development. However, the chemical nature of autoinducers remains elusive.
Mellissa B. Miller and Bonnie L. Bassler The process of bacterial communication is far more complex than expected. It may be that these processes were the precursors to multicellular cooperation in higher organisms.
Brinksmeier E., Meyer D., Huesmann-Cordes A.G., Herrmann C. "Metalworking fluids: Mechanisms and performance." In various manufacturing processes, metalworking fluids (MWFs) are applied to ensure workpiece quality, to reduce tool wear, and to improve process productivity. The specific chemical composition of an applied MWF should be strongly dependent on the scope of application. Even small changes of the MWF composition can influence the performance of MWFs in manufacturing processes considerably. Besides defined variations of the composition, the MWF-chemistry furthermore changes over the service life of the fluid. This paper presents the current state of the art regarding the assumed working mechanisms of MWFs including the effects of desired and undesired changes of the MWF properties.

Technical Definitions  
Source: Ullman's Encyclopaedia of Industrial Chemistry
Author: Dieter Klamann, Hamburg, Germany
Section: Lubricants and Related Products, pg 424
  Friction is defined as the force resisting the relative motion of two contacting bodies.
  Lubricant applies to products based on mineral or synthetic oils. World consumption of lubricants and related products amounts to 0.8% of the total petroleum consumed; it is higher in very industrialized countries. Caution: This category contains many more products than metalworking fluids.
  Tribology is the science of friction and lubrication. It deals with problems of wear, materials and design.
  Viscosity is the property of a fluid that enables it to develop and maintain an amount of shearing stress dependent upon the velocity of flow and then to offer continued resistance to flow. It is measured by the ratio of the tangential frictional force per unit area to the rezocity gradient perpendicular to the direction of flow.
See Ullman's for more details and other definitions.  
All documents marked with (pdf) require Acrobat.


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Metalworking Fluid Maintenance